Cracking KeePass Database

In this post I will describe how you can crack a KeePass Database file (.kdbx) in an easy way. Or to be correct we are not cracking the DB, we are cracking the password hash.

To demonstrate this I created a new database that I called “SecretDB.kdbx” and our mission will be to find out which master password I chose for the database.

Keepass-DB-file

To be able to crack the hash we will need to extract and save it and that can be done with the John the ripper utility tool “keepass2john“. It comes with Kali Linux so you don’t have to install it.

What you do to extract the hash is really simple, you just run:

keepass2john SecretDB.kdbx


You can also send the output to a file by adding “>” like I did in the screenshot below.

keepass2john SecretDB.kdbx > Keepasshash.txt

keepass2john-screenshot

We now have our hash ready to be cracked. In this example we will try to crack it using a dictionary and John the ripper. I used a modified version of rockyou.txt as dictionary. You can also use other great cracking tools like hashcat but I went with john here.

We run john and specify our custom wordlist with “–wordlist” parameter and then define our hash file.

john --wordlist=rockyou.txt KeepassHash.txt

We then just let it run for some time and as soon as we crack the hash it will be displayed. As you can see in the screenshot we did crack the hash and the password of this SecretDB.kdbx-database was “SuperSecretPassword2020”.

I hope you found this post useful and make sure to not use weak password for your database.

// Rickard

How to crack hashes with John the Ripper – Linux

In this post I will show you how you can crack passwords with John the Ripper. We will start off by collecting the hashes from a linux machine, then use the tool unshadow and at last crack the hashes with John the Ripper.

john the ripper

1 – Collect hashes from a Linux machine
We will start with collecting the hashes from the target machine. We will need both /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow. Save them to your Kali Linux machine, preferably on the desktop. It can be done with the following commands.
cat /etc/passwd > ~/Desktop/passwd.txt

/etc/passwd

cat /etc/shadow > ~/Desktop/shadow.txt

/etc/shadow


2 – Combine passwd and shadow with unshadow
Now we need to combine these two files into one. This can be done with the tool unshadow.
unshadow passwd.txt shadow.txt > hashtocrack.txt

unshadow passwd and shadow files


3 – Crack with John
Now we are ready to crack the hashes. John can run in different modes. You can use wordlists or straight brute force. The method I will use in this example is wordlist mode since that is the most effective way. Brute forcing takes a lot of time and I recommend you to only use it as a last resort when your wordlists won’t crack the hashes. In this example we define the wordlist to use to the built in rockyou.txt.
john --wordlist=/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt hashtocrack.txt

crack with rockyou.txt

4 – Show cracked credentials
If you let john run you will be prompted with the credentials as soon as they have been cracked. In this example we can see that the the password for the user SuperAdmin was Password1.

We can also come back at a later time and check the credentials again by defining the unshadowed file and add the parameter –show.

john hashtocrack.txt --show

//Rickard

O.MG-CABLE – How To Get Started

This guide will help you get started with the O.MG-cable. When you open your package it should include three things:

  1. A card with instructions
  2. The programmer
  3. The OMG-cable
OMG-cable

If you read the instruction card you will see that you can find instructions on how to get started at https://o.mg.lol/setup. You will there find a link to the Github project where you can download the latest firmware that we will use to flash the cable.

Download the firmware by clicking on the link to the .zip-file. You will then need to unzip the file and you can do that by navigating to your download folder and run:
unzip O.MG_cable-Firmware_v1.4.0.zip

Then move into the new folder and you will see the following files.

folder

The next step is to plug in the programmer in your computer and then plug in the cable into the programmer. You are now ready to flash your cable and you do that by running the flash_linux:

./flash_linux

You will be able to either program it into Station or Access Point mode. In this case just go by default (AP mode) by pressing Enter. When the flashing is done you are ready to use the cable.

Flashing OMG

Disconnect the programmer from your computer and plug in your cable. Wait for ~60 seconds and then connect to the cable via WiFi with the default credentials above. When you are connected to the cables wireless network you can open a web browser and browse to http://192.168.4.1 and you will get to the UI.

Now you are ready to run your first scripts. Good luck!

// Rickard

How to use Undercover-mode in Kali Linux

Yesterday a new version of Kali Linux were released, Kali 2020.1. You can download it here. Make sure that you have read the release notes to make sure that you don’t break anything you don’t want.

Upgrade your existing machine:

  1. Run sudo apt full-upgrade -y
  2. Wait for the job to finish.
  3. Verify that you got the new version by running
    cat /etc/os-release
    Verify-installation

How to use undercover mode in Kali Linux 2020.1:
Undercover mode is a new feature for version 2020.1 that will help you hide that you are a super elite hacker when you are out in public by temporarily changing the desktop to look like a Windows 10 machine. I’m not sure I see the real use cases for this but it’s actually a funny feature. To use it you just need to run kali-undercover.

Kali undercover

After a few seconds you will see a Windows 10-like appearance, pretty cool.

Windows10-like-Kali-Linux

Httprobe

This post is about httprobe which is a tool for quickly probing for active http and https servers. If you have a list with subdomains you can quickly check which are active by using this tool. Httprobe is available on Github and the tool was created by Tom Hudson (@tomnomnom on Twitter).

Pre requisites:
1. You need to have Golang installed. If you haven’t used golang before and need help to get started, read my guide on how to install Golang on Kali Linux

2. Download ‘httprobe’ by running
go get -u github.com/tomnomnom/httprobe

3. If you used my guide to install Go you can now find ‘httprobe’ at:
/root/go-workspace/bin/assetfinder

Basic usage:
To use httprobe you need to print out your domains and pipe them to httprobe. In the example below we are are using cat to read the data from domains.txt and gives its content as output to httprobe.
cat domains.txt | httprobe

Adding extra ports:
By default httprobe is probing for http on port 80 and https on port 443. We can add other ports by using the ‘-p’ parameter.
cat domains.txt | httprobe -p http:8080 -p https:8443

Skip default ports and only probe for defined ports:
By adding ‘-s’ parameter the default ports will be ignored.
cat domains.txt | httprobe -s -p http:8080 -p https:8443

Specify a timeout:
If you know that the response time on the target server might be high you can specify a custom timeout by using the ‘-t’ parameter. The time is configured in milliseconds.
cat domains.txt | httprobe -t 10000

Combine with other tools:
You can combine ‘httprobe’ with other tools such as ‘assetfinder’. If you don’t know about assetfinder you can read my earlier post that helps you getting started with assetfinder.

One example on how you can chain assetfinder with httprobe.
assetfinder --subs-only yahoo.com | httprobe -s -p http:80
In the example we first searched for subdomains at yahoo.com and piped the result to httprobe to find out which of the subdomains that were listening on port 80.
assetfinder+httprobe

Assetfinder

reconnaissance

In this post I will write a bit about Assetfinder which is an quick and awesome tool for finding subdomains. The tool is available in Github and was created by Tom Hudson (@tomnomnom on Twitter).

According to the information on Github, Assetfinder uses the following resources to find subdomains

  • crt.sh
  • certspotter
  • hackertarget
  • threatcrowd
  • wayback machine
  • dns.bufferover.run
  • facebook
  • virustotal
  • findsubdomains

Pre requisites:
1. You need to have Golang installed. If you haven’t used golang before and need help to get started, read my guide on how to install Golang on Kali Linux

2. Download assetfinder by running the following command.
go get -u github.com/tomnomnom/assetfinder

3. If you used my guide to install Go you can now find assetfinder at:
/root/go-workspace/bin/assetfinder

How to use Assetfinder:
Navigate to assetfinder and run
./assetfinder exampledomain.com
If you only want the subdomains you can add –subs-only.
./assetfinder --subs-only exampledomain.com

assetfinder --subs-only
Save the output to a file:
You can also save the output to a file by adding “> filename”
./assetfinder --subs-only exampledomain.com > domains

Assetfinder - Save output

The tool is really quick so it is perfect to use it when you want a fast way to find subdomains for a target company. I really love this tool. <3

How to Install Golang in Kali Linux

golang

Golang (Go) is a programming language that are becoming more and more popular and I have seen many interesting tools that are written in Go. Since Go are not being installed by default in Kali Linux I thought that publishing a quick-start guide could be a good idea.

  1. Start by open your web browser and visit https://golang.org/dl/
  2. Download the latest version for Linux – “gox.xx.x.linux-amd64.tar.gz”
    Download page on golang.org
  3. Open your terminal and navigate to your downloads folder
    cd /root/Downloads
  4. Extract the files
    tar -C /usr/local/ -xzf go1.13.6.linux-amd64.tar.gz
  5. Add variables for GO by modifying “~/.bashrc”
    vim ~/.bashrc
    Add the following paths to the end of the file
    export GOPATH=/root/go-workspace
    export GOROOT=/usr/local/go
    PATH=$PATH:$GOROOT/bin/:$GOPATH/bin
  6. Now we need to refresh the bashrc to get the updated variables
    source ~/.bashrc
  7. Now we just need to verify that everything is correct configured and we can do that by creating a simple ‘hello world’ program in Go.
    vim helloworld.go
    Add the following code to the file:
    package main
    import "fmt"
    func main() {
    fmt.Printf("Hello world!\n")
    }
    Then save the file and try to run the program:
    go run helloworld.go
    If everything was configured correctly you should see something like this:
    golang.helloworld
    hackerman1
    You are now ready to use Golang on your Kali Linux machine!

How to connect to Azure with SSH Tunneling

Have you just created your first Azure VM and are looking for a good, secure way to connect to you new machine without exposing more than necessary to the internet? Maybe you just want to run a few machines and don’t want to spend money on firewalls to configure VPN to your Azure Virtual Network (VNET)?

Connect-to-Azure-SSH-tunneling

In this post I will explain a method that can be used to connect to your machine securely without any cost. After reading this post you will know how you can set up a SSH tunnel to your machine so you only need to expose TCP port 22 to the internet. I will also show you how you can limit the access to that port by configuring a Network Security Group (NSG) in Microsoft Azure to only allow your own IP to connect. You will connect to the VM using Putty and either Google Chrome or Mozilla Firefox. We start off by configuring the NSG in Azure.

Configuring NSG in Azure:
The first thing that we need to do is to allow you to SSH to your machine and we do that by configuring the NSG. You want to modify the inbound security rule named ‘default-allow-ssh’ and you do that by clicking on ‘Inbound security rules’ in the left menu.

nsg

You should now add your public IP to the rule to allow you to connect from your home network. You probably know how to get your public IP but if you don’t know, one simple way is by visiting https://ipinfo.io and copy the address from there.

publicip

When you have the IP ready, click on the ‘default-allow-ssh’-rule to expand it and then add your IP to ‘Source IP addresses/CIDR ranges’ and press ‘Save’.

nsg2

The Azure configuration is now done. Lets move on to the Putty configuration.

Configuring Putty:
If you don’t have Putty installed you can download it from the official website and then just install it. After you have installed the software the first step is to run Putty and add the public IP of your Azure VM and select SSH port 22.

putty

Then navigate to SSH and check ‘Don’t start a shell or command at all’.

putty2

Move on by expanding SSH (+) and go to Tunnels. Add a forwarded port by choosing ‘Source port’. In this example we use port 1080. Select ‘Dynamic’ for destination and then press ‘Add’. Now you should see ‘D1080’ added above.

putty3

If you don’t want to configure these settings every time you want to use the tunnel you can save the session. That is done by going back to ‘Session’ and enter a name and then press ‘Save’.

putty4

Now the tunnel is ready and we just need to start it. Click on ‘Open’, enter your SSH credentials and press enter and the tunnel should be up and running.

Verify that the tunnel works:
You will probably want to make sure that the tunnel works as expected and we can verify that by configuring a simple HTTP server on the VM. In this example CentOS7 was used but it can be done on most machines.

Step one is to open another putty window and connect to you VM via SSH. Navigate to your home folder (cd /home) and create a directory (mkdir testfolder). Cd into that folder and create a testfile (touch text.txt). Then run the following command to run a python based HTTP-server on port 80.

sudo python -m SimpleHTTPServer 80

Your server will now listen for incoming connections on port 80. But since you don’t allow any connections to port 80 in the NSG you won’t be able to go directly to port 80. We need to send our HTTP traffic in the SSH tunnel to be able to reach it and we do that by configuring proxy settings in our web browser. This can be done in most of the common browsers and I will show you how to do it in Firefox and Chrome.

Chrome:
To configure proxy for Chrome you just right click on Chrome in the task bar and select ‘Properties’. You then need to add some run parameters.

chrome

The parameters you should add are:

--user-data-dir="%USERPROFILE%\proxy-profile" 
--proxy-server="socks5://127.0.0.1:1080"

Firefox:
For Firefox you just open up the browser, open the menu (1) and click on ‘Options’ (2).

firefox

Then you search for proxy and click on ‘Settings’

proxyfirefox

Select ‘Manual proxy configuration'(3) and then add ‘Socks Host 127.0.0.1 Port 1080′(4) and ‘SOCKS v5’ like in the example below.

firefox-proxy

After configuring the proxy settings you can just browse to the internal IP of your Azure VM. You can find the internal IP in the overview of the VM.

az-vm-private-ip

Then just browse to the IP ‘http://10.0.0.4’

result

Voila, you should now see the test file (test.txt) that you created earlier.

I really hope you found this guide useful, if you have any questions or reflections please send me a message on twitter.

/Rickard

Crunch

Today I will continue to write about tools that you can use to generate wordlists. Today we will take a look at crunch.

crunch
Where you can find crunch in Kali Linux.

Background and the functionality:
Crunch is another great tool that can be used to create wordlists. The tool was initially released in 2004 and the author is bofh28 according to tools.kali.org.

You use the tool to generates wordlists based on the charset you specify.

How to get started with Crunch:
To make sure that you have crunch installed, which comes pre-installed with Kali, you just open up the terminal and write crunch.

installed

If you start off by running the tool with only the required parameters you will get all possible words using all characters. So if you for example run “crunch 8 8” you will get all words that are eight characters long.

You can also specify which characters you want to use for your wordlist.

t-768x390

In the example above you can see that we specified all worlds between 5-6 that uses the following charcters: abcd123.

3-2
Here you can see the start and end of the file we just created.

-o
With the -o variable you can chose where the output should be saved.
Example: crunch 8 8 -o wordlist.txt

-b
With the -b parameter you can specify how big wordlist-files you want. In the example below I first created a wordlist with the size of ~2kB. When I use the -b parameter to define that each file only can be 1kB big you see that three files was created instead and none of them were bigger than 1kB.

b
An example of how you can use the -b parameter.

-i
With the -i parameter you can invert the order of the words. If you use crunch 3 3 without using the -i parameter you will get a file that starts with

  • aaa
  • aab
  • aac

If you use -i you will instead get the following result:

i

-t
The -t parameter is one of my favorites to use. If you know that a password uses a special pattern you can use the -t parameter to specify that pattern and reduce the amount of words in your list significantly and make your wordlist more efficient.

A normal use case can be that you got information about that many users in your targets company creates passwords based on the current season, for example Summer2019! . You can then create a wordlist based on that structure.

t-768x390
An example on how you can use the -t parameter.

You can use the following characters to build your patterns:

  • @ will insert lower case characters
  • , will insert upper case characters
  • % will insert numbers
  • ^ will insert symbols

-z
You can also use the -z parameter to compress and create an archive-file. You can choose between gzip, bzip2, lzma and 7z. Gzip is fastest but compression is minimal while 7z is slowest with best compression.

z
An example on how you can use the -z parameter.

That was everything for this time. Please contact me if you feel like I missed something or if you want to share any special tips and tricks for Crunch.

Thanks
/R

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